A large number of adults and children suffer from influenza virus every year. For Russia and many countries of the Northern Hemisphere, the epidemic usually occurs during the cold season, when the human body is least protected against various infections. According to epidemiologists, the flu of 2016-2017 will most actively manifest itself in November-December of this year, although symptoms of the disease in people with low immunity can be observed until the spring. In any case, do not panic. Timely prevention and proper treatment will allow to pass this disease with minimal consequences for the adult and child population of our country.
Flu forecast for 2016-2017 - what types of virus are expectedTo prepare for a possible epidemic of influenza in a particular region, this problem is given attention in advance. As a rule, the meeting of the sanitary and anti-epidemic commission is carried out at the end of summer, when there is already some information about the virus and the method of its treatment provided by the experts of the World Health Organization.
The probability and nature of the epidemic is determined on the basis of a study of the disease and monitoring its spread on the planet. According to the WHO forecast in the autumn and winter period 2016-2017 in the countries of the Northern Hemisphere the following types of the influenza virus are expected:
- A / H1N1 (California 04/2009) This is the most common strain of influenza, causing large-scale epidemics. After 2009, when the disease struck many residents of North America, the virus was named "California 04/2009". In addition to the medical term, H1N1 is also called "swine flu" because it affects not only humans, but also many animals, in particular domestic pigs. In most people, H1N1 occurs without subsequent complications, even in the absence of serious medication. However, to neglect this virus in any case it is impossible. The severe form of the disease is characterized by rapidly progressive viral pneumonia, which can lead to death in the absence of proper treatment within the first 24 hours after the onset of symptoms.
- H3N2 (A / Hong Kong) This influenza strain was isolated in 2014 during the mass epidemic in Hong Kong among adults and children. The main danger lies in the "poor familiarity" of the human immune system with this infection. According to medical research, H3N2 appeared due to mutations of various strains of the virus, primarily damaging birds. Since immunity to this disease in the population is almost non-existent, it is very important to get vaccinated in a timely manner. This especially applies to the so-called risk group - children and people of retirement age. Among the complications that are caused by H3N2 flu, such diseases as bronchitis and pneumonia, requiring urgent treatment. Also, there may be an exacerbation of bronchial asthma and cardiovascular diseases.
- B / Brisbane This virus is a subtype of influenza B. It was first detected in 2008 in the Australian city of Brisbane and still belongs to poorly studied types. Diagnosing this infection is difficult because of implicit symptoms. However, this is not worth worrying about, since influenza B is much less dangerous than strains belonging to group A. Typically, this type of disease is easily tolerated by both adults and children, does not require serious treatment, and, more importantly, does not is characterized by severe complications.
Flu 2017: the main symptoms in adultsTo determine the specific type of influenza by symptoms is almost impossible, since different strains, as a rule, have a similar symptomatology. In addition, the severity of these or other signs depends not only on the virus, but also on the general condition of a person. Some of the symptoms of influenza are almost identical to those of normal respiratory diseases common to adults. However, it is possible to distinguish this infection from ARVI and ARI. The main symptoms of influenza in adults are:
- high fever (39-40 degrees) and fever;
- aching pain in the muscles and joints;
- severe headaches;
- general weakness, inability to concentrate on specific thoughts and actions;
- inflammation of the eye mucosa;
- dry cough accompanied by discomfort in the chest;
- coryza or pharyngitis.
Headache and high fever are obvious symptoms of influenza in adultsGetting into the body, at first the virus does not appear. The incubation period is usually 3-5 days, during which there are no symptoms. The disease lasts about a week, but even after the end of treatment a person feels sluggish and tired, and at this time is prone to other diseases. For adults this is especially characteristic, since in adulthood the more severe symptoms of influenza usually occur, sometimes accompanied by nausea and vomiting.
Symptoms of influenza and ARVI in childrenFrom the psychological point of view, any adult person experiences his illness more easily than the illness of his children. Since in the process of growing up the children's organism will in any case be subjected to attacks of viral infections, it is very important during this period to remain calm and perform the treatment in strict accordance with the recommendations of the doctor. In this case, parents should know how to independently distinguish the symptoms of influenza and simple SARS in children. Baby symptoms of SARS:
- body temperature up to 38 ° C (higher rarely rises);
- intoxication of the body is weak;
- general well-being is satisfactory;
- cough moderate, manifested immediately after the onset of the disease;
- obvious runny nose, often stuffy nose;
- redness of the throat (one of the main symptoms).
- body temperature above 39 ° C (can last 3-4 days, despite treatment);
- high intoxication of the body, which is expressed by chills, sweating, headache, dizziness, aches in the joints;
- cough occurs on the 2nd-2nd day, accompanied by pain in the chest;
- the runny nose is not immediately apparent and is often not as pronounced as in ARVI;
- possible redness of the eyes.
High temperature in a child should serve as a signal for emergency treatment. If a child often sneezes due to a cold, his throat hurts, and the temperature is kept at 37-38 ° C or absent altogether, these are obvious symptoms of acute respiratory viral infection. Ordinary viral infections are also not characterized by disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, which are often found in children in the case of H1N1 flu. Another difference in the symptoms of influenza and ARVI in children is the nature of the disease. In the first case, the onset of the disease is always acute, whereas the acute respiratory viral infection often proceeds smoothly.
Treatment of viral influenza 2016-2017 in adults and childrenAs is known, prevention is the best treatment. To protect yourself from the flu, you should follow the following recommendations:
- Timely to do the vaccination. Since the first antibodies are produced after 7-10 days, it is better to inoculate at least a month before the expected onset of the epidemic.
- Avoid places of large crowds. Especially in this regard, dangerous indoor spaces - in such conditions, the virus is very quickly transferred from a sick person to a healthy one.
- Adhere to the general rules of hygiene: wash your hands, use only your cup, spoon, plate and towel.
- Ventilate the room and perform wet cleaning at least 2 times a day.
- Improve the general condition of the body by exercising and taking multivitamins.
Timely vaccination makes the symptoms of the disease milder and significantly simplifies treatment. If the disease managed to cope with human immunity, then treatment of the viral flu in both children and adults should be carried out under the strict supervision of a doctor. Only a specialist will be able to determine which medications will be of sufficient effectiveness in a particular clinical case, and which treatment program should be adhered to. During the flu, it is very important to comply with bed rest. Probably, for adults such a task will seem difficult, given the need to take a sick leave for at least a week. Nevertheless, there is no alternative for the treatment of this disease. Influenced influenza is extremely dangerous for its complications, which can affect the functioning of the respiratory, cardiac and muscular system. In the case of H1N1, disregard for bed rest can be fatal. Although, as noted above, specialists do not predict any abnormal epidemics at the end of this year and early next year, in case of the first symptoms, it is necessary to adhere to recommendations for the prevention and treatment of viral influenza in adults and children. With a careful attitude towards one's own health and qualified medical care, the flu 2016-2017 and, most importantly, its complications are likely to bypass you.
Symptoms and methods of treatment of influenza