Adaptation of resuscitation measures
Many rules for the provision of emergency care for adults apply to children, although the technique of resuscitation should be appropriately adapted (otherwise they may harm children under the age of eight). A child over the age of eight is the same help as an adult. Accordingly, a number of features have and the technique of resuscitation of children younger than one year, who have fragile bones and a body of small size, with a smaller volume of blood circulation.
Basics of resuscitation
In the absence of breathing and palpitation, the same resuscitation methods are always used. Having made sure of the safety of the place of care, it is necessary immediately to start resuscitation measures, the purpose of which is:
• ensuring airway patency;
• restoration of adequate breathing;
• providing the victim's heartbeat.
• First aid at the scene of an accident can play a decisive role in saving a child's life, but it is equally important to take care of timely and professional medical intervention.
The first thing to do is to make sure that the scene of the incident is safe for the victim and who is helping. So, if the child is under the influence of electric current, it is necessary with all precautions, avoiding direct contact, turning off the current or pulling the victim aside using improvised means (dry rope or stick).
Assessment of consciousness
The first aid officer must determine whether the victim is conscious. To do this, he can shake it slightly, pinch or talk to him (a small child is patted on the soles of his feet). Then you should try to assess the severity of his condition and call an ambulance.
If the child is unconscious and breathing, it is necessary to make sure that his airways are free, and then turned into a "rescue position". This will help prevent stifling due to tongue twisting or inhalation of vomit. The child is laid with the support of one hand assisting with a slightly shaded head down. First, it is necessary to remove foreign bodies from the oral cavity of the child. Maintain the patency of the respiratory tract, slightly lifting the chin of the victim with two fingers. Assess the presence of breathing should be a maximum of 10 seconds. In the absence of breathing, the caregiver must pinch the child's nose and take five breaths into the mouth cavity with a frequency of one breath every three seconds. At the same time, it is necessary to control the lifting of the baby's chest. The patient's pulse is determined on the carotid artery also maximum for 10 seconds (to find this artery on the neck to the left or right of the trachea). When restoring breathing and circulation, the child should be placed in a "rescue position". In the absence of a pulse, the helper proceeds to an indirect massage of the heart: five strokes in the lower third of the sternum are alternated with one inhalation. The frequency of pressing should be about a hundred per minute. Any foreign body in the respiratory tract must be carefully removed. Then it is necessary to slightly lift the chin of the victim with one finger, supporting his head with the other hand. Now we can estimate the presence of spontaneous breathing. If the child does not breathe for 10 seconds, the caregiver starts artificial respiration simultaneously in the nose and mouth, controlling the lifting of the victim's chest. The frequency of inhalation should be approximately one breath in three seconds. Next, you need to try to find a pulse on the brachial artery (in the elbow fold). If the pulse is less than one beat per second, proceed to step 4. When restoring the pulse and breathing, the child is placed in a "rescue position". Assisting, I gently presses two fingers on the lower third of the sternum at a speed of 100 movements per minute. Five clicks alternate with one breath. These activities continue to be performed before the ambulance arrives. Suffocation is quite common in children as a result of airway obstruction. Symptoms of suffocation include the inability to speak and breathe redness of the face. With continued suffocation, the child's face becomes bluish gray and without assistance he may die. If the child is conscious, then the caregiver must pat him on the back several times to remove the foreign body from the respiratory tract. If there is no necessary effect, the Heimlich method is used. If airway obstruction can not be eliminated with the help of these techniques, you should immediately call an ambulance. If the child does not breathe and is unconscious, resuscitation should be started and an ambulance team called. Performing the reception of Heimlich, the caretaker covers from behind with the hands of the victim's breast while holding one fist on the lower part of the sternum. Then five sharp compressive movements are made.
A child without consciousness
If the injured child is unconscious, perform steps 1 and 2 (see above). If this does not help, they resort to patting on the back and indirect massage of the heart, performing these manipulations before the arrival of physicians.
Suffocation in an infant
The helping person holds the child upside down and performs several sharp strikes on the back. If this does not help, they perform a series of patting movements on the back and chest until the ambulance arrives.