Under the long-term effects of medications, such pathologies may appear:
- Yellow color of nails, but the nail is transparent, and has no visible disturbances in its structure.
- Photonicholysis manifests itself in the exfoliation of the nails under the influence of light.
- Coylonihia. With this pathology, the nails take the shape of a spoon.
- Onycholysis - exfoliation of the nail plate.
- Cyanosis of the nail bed is manifested in its bluish color.
- Diffuse pigmentation - in the appearance of light strips.
- Subungual keratoses are calluses under the nails.
- Subungual hematomas are hemorrhages under fingernails of nonmechanical origin.
- Onyhoresis manifests itself in strong brittle nails.
- Onykhomadesis - in complete rejection of the nail.
- Leukopathy. With this pathology, white transverse strips appear on all nails.
- Leikonihia. The nail has a white color.
- Air bubbles under the nail plate.
With general internal and skin diseases, it is possible to distinguish such pathologies:
- Cyanosis of the nail bed indicates cardiopulmonary diseases.
- Yellow nails become with infectious diseases.
- Condensation, thickening, yellowish color - chronic bronchitis, asthma, fibrosis of lungs.
- Spoon shaped nails and their fragility indicate hypochronous or pernicious anemia.
- Diffuse pigmentation occurs with anemia due to a lack of vitamin B12.
- Milk nails - with liver diseases.
- Yellow nails - hepatitis.
- White color appears in people with kidney disease, or with dialysis.
- Spoon shaped nails - avitaminosis.
- With protein deficiency, there may be voids under the fingernail of non-mechanical origin.
- Blue-black color can talk about melanoma and nevi (neoplasm on birthmarks).
- Hyperkeratosis - thickening of the nail, which is the result of fungal diseases, psoriasis, eczema, and red hair follicles.
- Onyorexis occurs with red flat lishy, psoriasis and eczema.
Fungal nail damage is one of the most common nail diseases. It appears in pseudo-leukonychia, in which the nail becomes white when the fungus penetrates into the surface. The yellow color of the nails can indicate candidiasis, green or brown - about the nail mold.
In some diseases, the risk of infection with the fungus increases significantly. This is atherosclerosis, diabetes, chronic venous disease, deformities of the feet, leg injuries, lymphatic disorders, excessive sweating, excessive consumption of sweets.
Also, various pathologies of nails can occur if a person is genetically disposed to it, moves little, does not pay enough attention to personal hygiene, wears uncomfortable or pressing shoes, traumatizes, is exposed to chemicals, or works in excessively damp rooms. Even bedridden patients are at risk.
In any case, if you notice the slightest deviation in the state of the nails, you can not self-medicate. If there is a disease, only the doctor will be able to determine its true cause, because a number of diseases have similar symptoms, "filter out" which can only be in the laboratory.