- inborn. It is caused by insufficient functioning of the thyroid gland in a newborn. It happens that the thyroid gland is completely absent or is underdeveloped. According to statistics, the disease occurs in 1-2 children out of 5,000;
- acquired. One of the most common pathologies (99%) of the thyroid gland. The main cause of the onset is a deficiency of thyroid hormones.
It is worth noting that usually hypothyroidism is a concomitant disease caused by some abnormalities of the thyroid gland. However, sometimes hypothyroidism is diagnosed as a separate disease-idiopathic hypothyroidism.
There are many disorders that are capable of provoking the development of hypothyroidism. Among them:
- Hashi-moto disease (chronic thyroiditis);
- destruction of the thyroid gland;
- therapy with radioactive iodine;
- failures in the thyroid after delivery;
- subacute thyroiditis;
- irradiation in the neck;
- taking medications (interferon, amiodarone);
- presence of goiter.
In addition, very often the cause of the development of hypothyroidism is the surgical removal of any part of the thyroid gland.
What is transient hypothyroidism in children?
Transient hypothyroidism is usually found in newborns born in regions with acute infectious diseases. Risk factors: premature infants; children born with insufficient weight; The presence of bacterial or viral inflammatory processes in the womb.
To protect the future child from the development of pathology, it is necessary to take medication with iodine during the gestation period. If a woman is diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism, then hormone levels should be normalized before pregnancy planning.
Symptoms of hypothyroidism
Symptomatic, characteristic of hypothyroidism is not immediately apparent. However, it is worth to be examined if such symptoms are found:
- malfunctions in the menstrual cycle;
- a sharp set of body weight, despite a decreased appetite;
- nausea, vomiting;
- constipation, flatulence;
- deterioration of the hair condition. They become brittle and dry, precipitate rapidly;
- swelling on the face, arms and legs;
- the color of the scalp acquires a yellowish hue;
- hearing impairment;
- changes in voice;
- fatigue, fatigue;
- inhibition of muscle reactions;
- chills (due to metabolic disorders);
In women, hypothyroidism can cause sharp changes in mood, seizures of sudden sadness, protracted depression. In addition, the disease causes a decrease in intellectual abilities: memory deteriorates, there are disruptions in the work of cognitive activity, blurred understanding and reaction. Insomnia or increased drowsiness is also characteristic.
Treatment of hypothyroidism
You are interested in what is hypothyroidism, and is the disease treated? Modern medical achievements allow artificially synthesizing thyroid hormone. Thus, therapy consists in providing the body with a scarce substance. The replacement of thyroiditis is carried out with the help of its analogue - L-thyroxine. In addition, hormonal replacement therapy may be prescribed.